# Applied Physics - I

Below is the syllabus for Applied Physics-I:-

## Unit-I

Interference: Principle of Superposition, Conditions for interference, Division of wavefront: Fresnel’s Biprism and Applications, Division of amplitude: Wedge-shaped film, Newton’s rings, Michelson Interferometer and Applications.

Diffraction: Types of Diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction at a single slit, Plane transmission diffraction grating: theory, secondary maxima and minima, the width of principal maxima, absent spectra, overlapping of spectral lines, determination of wavelength; Dispersive power and resolving power of diffraction grating.

## Unit-II

Polarization: Polarization of transverse waves, Plane of polarization, Polarization by reflection, Double refraction, Nicole Prism, Quarter and half-wave plate, Specific Rotation, Laurent’s half shade polarimeter, Biquartz polarimeter.

Laser: Introduction, Simulated Absorption, Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission; Einstein’s Coefficients and its derivation, Population Inversion, Direct and Indirect pumping, Pumping schemes, Main components of Laser, He-Ne Laser, Semiconductor Laser, Characteristics of Laser, Application of Laser

## Unit-III

Optical Fiber: Introduction, Principle of propagation of light waves in optical fibers: total internal reflection, acceptance angle, numerical aperture, V-number; Modes of propagation, Types of optical fibers: single-mode fiber, multimode fibers; Fiber optics communication system, Advantages of optical fiber communication, Application of optical fibers.

Ultrasonics: Ultrasonic waves, Properties of ultrasonic waves, Production of ultrasonic waves: Magnetostriction and Piezoelectric methods, Detection of ultrasonic waves, Measurement of velocity of ultrasonic waves, Application of ultrasonic waves.

## Unit-IV

The special theory of Relativity: Concept of ether, Michelson-Morley experiment, Postulates of Special theory of relativity, Frame of reference, Galilean Transformations, Lorentz transformations, Consequences of Lorentz Transformations: Length contraction, Time dilation; Velocity transformations, Variation of mass with velocity, Einstein’s mass-energy relation, Einstein’s energy-momentum relation.

Nuclear Radiation and Detection: Classification of nuclear radiation, Interaction of charged particles (light and heavy) and gamma radiations with matter (basic concepts); Gas-filled detector: Ionized Chamber, Proportional Counter, Geiger Muller Counter; Scintillation Detector, Semiconductor Detector.

## Text Books

1. P. K. Diwan, Applied Physics for Engineers, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.
2. S. P. Taneja, Modern Physics for Engineers, R. Chand & Co.

## Reference Book

1. N. Subrahmanyam, B. Lal, M. N. Avadhanulu, A Textbook of Optics, S. Chand & Company Ltd.
2. Arthur Beiser, Concept of Modern Physics, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.
3. R. Resnick, Introduction to Special Relativity, John Wiley & Sons. (Asia) Pte. Ltd.
4. V. K. Mittal, R. C. Verma, S. C. Gupta, Introduction to Nuclear and Particle Physics, PHI Learning Private Limited
5. S. S. Kapoor, V. S. Ramamurthy, Nuclear Radiation Detector, New Age International (P) Limited.