# Electrical Technology Fundamentals

Below is the syllabus for **Electrical Technology Fundamentals**:-

## UNIT-I

**D. C. circuit excited by independent voltage/current source (steady state)**

**:**Ohm’s Law, junction & node, circuit elements classification: Linear & nonlinear, active & passive, lumped and distributed, unilateral & bilateral with examples, KVL, KCL, Loop analysis of resistive circuit in the context of dc voltage & current, Node-voltage analysis of resistive circuit in the context of dc voltages & currents. Star-Delta transformation for set of pure resistors. Relevant D. C. circuit analytical problems for quantitative analysis.

**Network Theorems:**Superposition, Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorem all in the context of dc voltage and current sources acting in a resistive network, maximum power transfer theorem, Relevant D. C. circuit analytical problems for quantitative analysis.

## UNIT–II

**AC Fundamentals:**Mathematical representation of various wave functions, Sinusoidal periodic signal, instantaneous & peak values, polar & rectangular form representation of impedances & phasor quantities, Adition & subtraction of two or more phasor sinusoidal quantities using component resolution method. RMS & average values of various waveforms including clipped, clapped, half wave rectified & full wave rectified sinusoidal periodic waveforms etc. Generation of alternating emf (dynamo). Relevant analytical problems for quantitative analysis.

**AC Circuits:**Behaviour of various compoents fed by AC source (steady state respose of pure R, pure L, pure C, RL, RC, RLC series with waveforms of instantaneous voltage, current & power on simultaneous real axis scale and corresponding phasor diagrams), P. F. active, reactive $ apparent power. Frequency response of Series & Parallel RLC circuit including resonance, Q factor, cut-off frequency & bandwidth. Relevant AC circuit analytical problems solutions using ‘j-omega’ operator method.

## UNIT–III

**Balanced Three Phase Systems:**Necessity & advantage of three phase system, mode of generation of 3 phase supply. Phase and line voltages & currents, power. Measurement of 3-phase power by two wattmeter method for various types of star & delta connected balanced resistive, inductive & capacitive loads including phasor diagrams at various power factors. Phase sequence significance. Relevant problems for quantitative analysis.

**Electromagnetism & Magnetic circuits (Quanlitative analysis only):**Laws of EMI, statically & dynamically induced emf, self & mutual induction, dot notation, RH Screw rule, Fleming’s RH & LH rules. MMF, Relation between magnetic flux, mmf and reluctance, magnetic fringing, Hysteresis & Eddy current losses & their minimization.

**Single Phase Transformer (Qualitative analysis only):**Principle, construction & emf equation. Phasor diagram for ideal case and at no load. Winding resistance & leakage reactance. Actual transformer at resistive, inductive & capacitive loads with phasor diagram. Losses & Efficiency, condition of maximum efficiency, regulation. OC & SC test, direct load test, equivalent circuit, concept of auto transformer.

## UNIT-IV

**Electrical Machines (Qualitative analysis only):**

Prime mover, Stator-Rotor, Field-Armature, necessity of a starter.

**D. C. Machines:**Principle, general construction & working, Split ring/Commutator working in DC generator & motor, generated emf equation, Torque Equation. Types of DC Machines, speed control of DC Shunt motor.

**A. C. Machines: 3-phase Induction motor:**Concept of rotating magnetic field, principle, types, general construction and working. Concept of slip & its significance.

**Synchronous Generator (alternator):**Principle, general construction & working.

**Synchronous motor:**Principle, general construction & working

General comparison amongst squirrel cage I. M., phase wound rotor type I. M. & DC motor.

General comparison between alternator & DC generator.

## TEXTBOOKS:

- Vijay Kumar Garg, Basic Electrical Engg: A Complete Solution, Wiley India Ltd.
- Rajendra Prasad, Electrical Engg. Fundamentals, PHI Pub.

## REFERENCE BOOKS:

- S. K. Sahdev, Basic Electrical Engg., Pearson Education
- PV Prasad, Basic Electrical Engg., Sivangaraju, Cengage Learning Pub.
- Bobrow, Electrical Engg. Fundamentals, Oxford Univ. Press
- Kulshreshtha, Basic Electrical Engg., McGraw Hill Pub

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