# Electrical Technology Fundamentals

Below is the syllabus for Electrical Technology Fundamentals:-

## UNIT-I

D. C. circuit excited by independent voltage/current source (steady state): Ohm’s Law, junction & node, circuit elements classification: Linear & nonlinear, active & passive, lumped and distributed, unilateral & bilateral with examples, KVL, KCL, Loop analysis of resistive circuit in the context of dc voltage & current, Node-voltage analysis of resistive circuit in the context of dc voltages & currents.  Star-Delta transformation for set of pure resistors. Relevant D. C. circuit analytical problems for quantitative analysis.
Network Theorems: Superposition, Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorem all in the context of dc voltage and current sources acting in a resistive network, maximum power transfer theorem, Relevant D. C. circuit analytical problems for quantitative analysis.

## UNIT–II

AC Fundamentals: Mathematical representation of various wave functions, Sinusoidal periodic signal, instantaneous & peak values, polar & rectangular form representation of impedances & phasor quantities, Adition & subtraction of two or more phasor sinusoidal quantities using component resolution method. RMS & average values of various waveforms including clipped, clapped, half wave rectified & full wave rectified sinusoidal periodic waveforms etc. Generation of alternating emf (dynamo). Relevant analytical problems for quantitative analysis.
AC Circuits: Behaviour of various compoents fed by AC source (steady state respose of pure R, pure L, pure C, RL, RC, RLC series with waveforms of instantaneous voltage, current & power on simultaneous real axis scale and corresponding phasor diagrams), P. F. active, reactive \$ apparent power. Frequency response of Series & Parallel RLC circuit including resonance, Q factor, cut-off frequency & bandwidth. Relevant AC circuit analytical problems solutions using ‘j-omega’ operator method.

## UNIT–III

Balanced Three Phase Systems: Necessity & advantage of three phase system, mode of generation of 3 phase supply. Phase and line voltages & currents, power. Measurement of 3-phase power by two wattmeter method for various types of star & delta connected balanced resistive, inductive & capacitive loads including phasor diagrams at various power factors. Phase sequence significance. Relevant problems for quantitative analysis.
Electromagnetism & Magnetic circuits (Quanlitative analysis only): Laws of EMI, statically & dynamically induced emf, self & mutual induction, dot notation, RH Screw rule, Fleming’s RH & LH rules. MMF, Relation between magnetic flux, mmf and reluctance, magnetic fringing, Hysteresis & Eddy current losses & their minimization.
Single Phase Transformer (Qualitative analysis only): Principle, construction & emf equation. Phasor diagram for ideal case and at no load. Winding resistance & leakage reactance. Actual transformer at resistive, inductive & capacitive loads with phasor diagram. Losses & Efficiency, condition of maximum efficiency, regulation. OC & SC test, direct load test, equivalent circuit, concept of auto transformer.

## UNIT-IV

Electrical Machines (Qualitative analysis only)
Prime mover, Stator-Rotor, Field-Armature, necessity of a starter.
D. C. Machines: Principle, general construction & working, Split ring/Commutator working in DC generator & motor, generated emf equation, Torque Equation. Types of DC Machines, speed control of DC Shunt motor.
A. C. Machines: 3-phase Induction motor: Concept of rotating magnetic field, principle, types, general construction and working. Concept of slip & its significance.
Synchronous Generator (alternator): Principle, general construction & working.
Synchronous motor: Principle, general construction & working
General comparison amongst squirrel cage I. M., phase wound rotor type I. M. & DC motor.
General comparison between alternator & DC generator.

## TEXTBOOKS:

1. Vijay Kumar Garg, Basic Electrical Engg: A Complete Solution, Wiley India Ltd.
2. Rajendra Prasad, Electrical Engg. Fundamentals, PHI Pub.

## REFERENCE BOOKS:

1. S. K. Sahdev, Basic Electrical Engg., Pearson Education
2. PV Prasad, Basic Electrical Engg., Sivangaraju, Cengage Learning Pub.
3. Bobrow, Electrical Engg. Fundamentals, Oxford Univ. Press
4. Kulshreshtha, Basic Electrical Engg., McGraw Hill Pub