Fundamentals of Biotechnology

Below is the syllabus for Fundamentals of Biotechnology:-



Introduction to the living world: Concept and definition of Biology;  Characteristic features of living organisms; Cell ultra-structure and functions of cell organelles like the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplast, ribosomes, and endoplasmic reticulum; Difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; Difference between animal and plant cell.
Introduction to Biomolecules: Definition, general classification, and important functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acid (DNA & RNA: Structure and forms), vitamins, hormones, and enzymes.


Genetics: Cell division – Mitosis and its utility to living systems. Meiosis and its genetic significance; Gene: Concept, location, definition, and structure; Introduction to replication, transcription, translation, Mutations, Genetic disorders; Human traits: Genetics of blood groups, diabetes type I & II.
Role of the immune system in health and disease: Brief introduction to morphology and pathogenicity of bacteria, fungi, virus, protozoa beneficial and harmful for human beings.


Concept of Genetic Engineering: Definition; Tools used in recombinant DNA Technology: Plasmids as nature’s interlopers, restriction enzymes as nature’s pinking-shears, Vector as gene transfer vehicle.
Transgenesis: Production and significance of transgenic plants and animals; the Basic concept of genetically modified organisms.


Applications of Biotechnology: Definition of Biotechnology; Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture, Medicine, Environment, Industry and Forensic Science.
Role of biology in allied fields: Role of biology in Information Technology (Bioinformatics), Nanotechnology (Nanobiotechnology), Micro-electromechanical systems (Bio-MEMS), and Sensors (Biosensors), Ethical issues related to Biotechnology.


  1. Deswal & Deswal, Introduction to Biotechnology, Dhanpat Rai Publications



  1. Bruce et al., Molecular Biology of the cell, (4th ed.) Alberts, Garland Science Publishing, New York.
  2. Pelczar Jr., M. J.; Chan, E.C.S. and Krieg, N.R., Microbiology, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.
  3. David L. Nelson and M. M. Cox, Lehninger: Principles of Biochemistry (3rd Edition), Macmillan/Worth publishers.
  4. Snusted & Simmons, Genetics.
  5. Glick, B. R. and Pasternak, J. J. Molecular Biotechnology: Principles Application of Recombinant DNA, ASM press Washington DC.
  6. Goldsby, R. A. Kindt, T. J. Osbourne, B. A. Kuby’s Immunology, W. H. Freeman and Company, New York.
  7. Watson, James D., and Gilman, M. Recombinant DNA (2nd Edition), W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.
  8. Malacinski, G.M. Essentials of Molecular Biology (4th Edition), Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Boston.
Below is the link to download Fundamentals of Biotechnology notes.

Related Links